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APA STYLE GUIDE: 5th Edition

The following notes are based on material from the following:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.








When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

ed. = edition; Ed. = Editor

Reference List

Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work.

When referring to any work that is not a journal, such as a book, article, or Web page, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.

Capitalize all major words in journal titles. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.

Order of reference list

Alphabetical order by primary author’s last name (or beginning of reference)

If you have more than one article by the same author(s), single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.

When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter (excluding A or The). Then assign letter suffixes to the year.

If the author is a groups use the first significant word of the name. Use full name, not abbreviations. A parent body precedes a subdivision, example: University of the West, Department of Management.


    Berndt, T. J. (1996). Exploring the effects of friendship quality on social development. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup, (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence. (pp. 346-365). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

    Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

    Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1995). Flexible correction processes in social judgment: The role of naive theories in corrections for perceived bias. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 68, 36-51.


The entry should begin with the last name of the first author, followed by his or her initials. It is followed by the date of publication, in parentheses, ended with a period.

Next include the book title, which should be in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title (and the first word of the subtitle, if any) and any proper names. Include any additional information necessary for retrieving the book (such as "3rd ed." or "Vol. 4") in parentheses, immediately after the title. Close with a final period.

Place of publication comes next, then the publisher. Use a colon after the place of publication. Identify the city and, if the city is not well known or could be confused with another city, the state and/or country where the publisher is located. States should be named using their two-letter abbreviations in all caps (e.g. IL, VA, MD). Place a colon (:) after the city name, then identify the name of the publisher, clearly and briefly. Spell out the names of associations and university presses, but omit superfluous terms such as "Publishers," "Co.," or "Inc." If two or more locations are given, give the location listed first or the publisher's home office. When the publisher is a university and the name of the state (or province) is included in the university name, do not repeat the name of the state/province in the publisher location. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word "Author" as the name of the publisher. Close with a period.

Each portion of the entry should be separated by a period.

    American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

    Arnheim, R. (1971). Art and visual perception. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Nicol, A. A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


There are four main elements of a reference to a periodical: (1) the article authors; (2) the publication date; (3) the article title; (4) and the journal title and publication information. Consider the following examples:

    Fine, M. A., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist, 48, 1141-1147.

    Karcher, Carolyn A. (1986). Censorship, American style: The case of Lydia Maria Child. Studies in the American Renaissance, 9 (3), 283-303.

List the name(s) of the article authors at the head of the entry, last names first. Separate authors' names with commas, and use an ampersand (&) just before the last author whenever there are two or more authors. Spell out corporate authors. If a reference article has no author listed, place the title in the author position before the date. Finish the element with a period.

Next, list in parentheses the year the work was copyrighted (for unpublished works, this date should be the year the work was written). For articles that have been accepted by a journal but not yet published, write "in press" in parentheses rather than giving a date. Conclude the element with a period. Capitalize just the first word of the title and of the subtitle (if present), and all proper names. Do not underline the title or place quotation marks around it. Use arabic numbers rather than roman numerals in two-part titles unless the published title uses roman numerals. List additional necessary information for identification in brackets after the article title (i.e. [Letter to the editor]). Conclude this element with a period. List the full title of the journal, in both upper and lowercase letters, and italicize the title. Italicize the volume number. List inclusive page numbers--just list the actual numbers for journal articles, but use 'pp.' before the page numbers for magazines and newspapers. Use commas to separate between the several parts of this element. Conclude this element with a period.

For a magazine or newspaper article, you need to include specific publication dates (month and day, if applicable) as well as the year. For a journal article, you do not need to include the month or day of publication.

You need list only the volume number if the periodical uses continuous pagination throughout a particular volume. If each issue begins with page 1, then you should list the issue number as well: Title of Periodical, Volume number (Issue number), pages. Note that the issue number is not italicized. If the journal does not use volume numbers, use the month, season, or other designation within the year to designate the specific journal article.

If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then change to regular type and give the page range without "pp." If the periodical does not use volume numbers, include "pp." before the page numbers so the reader will understand that the numbers refer to pagination. Use "p." if the source is a page or less long.

Citing articles in journals with continuous pagination

    Passons, W. (1967). Predictive validities of the ACT, SAT, and high school grades for first semester GPA and freshman courses. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 1143-1144.

Citing articles in journals with non-continuous pagination

    Sawyer, J. (1966). Measurement and prediction, clinical and statistical. Psychological Bulletin, 66 (3), 178-200.

    Because pagination begins anew with each issue of this journal, it is necessary to include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Note that there is a comma between the issue number and the page numbers, but no comma between the italized volume number and the issue number. If the periodical does not use volume numbers, include "pp." before the page numbers so the reader will understand that the numbers refer to pagination. Use "p." if the source is a page or less long.

Citing articles in monthly periodicals

    Chandler-Crisp, S. (1988, May) Aerobic writing: A writing practice model. Writing Lab Newsletter, pp. 9-11.

Citing articles in weekly periodicals

    Kauffmann, S. (1993, October 18). On films: Class consciousness. The New Republic, p.30.

Newspaper articles

    Monson, M. (1993, September 16). Urbana firm obstacle to office project. The Champaign-Urbana News-Gazette, pp. A1, A8.

No author identified

    Clinton puts 'human face' on health-care plan. (1993, September 16). The New York Times, p. B1.

Reprinted or republished articles

    Clark, G., & Zimmerman, E. (1988). Professional roles and activities as models for art education. In S. Dobbs (Ed.), Research readings for discipline-based art education. Reston, VA: NAEA. (Reprinted from Studies in Art Education, 19 (1986), 34-39.)

Following the entry, enclose "Reprinted from" in parentheses, noting the original publication information. Close with a period.

ERIC Documents (Report available from the Educational Resources Information Center)

    Mead, J.V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them  (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346082)  

Multiple Authors

Separate authors' names with commas, and use an ampersand (&) just before the last author whenever there are two or more authors.

When a work has up to (and including) six authors, cite all authors.

    Grice, H. P., & Gregory, R. L. (1968). Early language development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Festinger, L., Riecken, H., & Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

More than six authors: Provide initials and surnames of first six authors followed by et al. for any remaining authors.

    Roeder, K., Howdeshell, J., Fulton, L., Lochhead, M., Craig, K., Peterson, R., et.al. (1967). Nerve cells and insect behavior. Cambridge, MA:   Harvard University Press.

    Wolchik, S.A., West, S.G., Sandler, I.N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856.


Corporate authorship: the name of the group appears as the author.

    Kimberly-Clark. (2002). Kimberly-Clark (Annual Report). Dallas, TX: Author.

    Institute of Financial Education. (1982). Managing personal funds. Chicago: Midwestern.

No author identified

If no author is identified, begin with the title. Alphabetize these kinds of entries by the first significant word in the title.

    Experimental psychology. (1938). New York: Holt.

Citing items in an anthology/chapter in edited book

    O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York: Springer.

    Rubenstein, J.P. (1967). The effect of television violence on small children. In B.F. Kane (Ed.), Television and juvenile psychological development (pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society.

Reprinted or republished chapter

    Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1923)

Following the entry, enclose "Original work published" in parentheses, noting the original date.

Chapter in a volume in a series

    Maccoby, E.E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P.H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E.M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.

Citing multivolume works

    Wilson, J. G., & Fraser, F. C. (Eds.). (1977-1978). Handbook of teratology (Vols. 1-4). New York: Plenum Press.

In listing a multivolume work, the publication dates should be inclusive for all volumes. The volumes should be identified, in parentheses, immediately following the book title. Do not use a period between the title and the parenthetical information; close the entire title, including the volume information, with a period.

Edited collections

    Grice, H. P., & Gregory, R. L. (Eds.). (1968). Early language development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Higgins, J. (Ed.). (1988). Psychology. New York: Norton.

Citing specific editions of a book

    Brockett, O. (1987). History of the theatre (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Immediately after the book's title, note the edition information in parentheses (for example, "5th ed." or "rev. ed."). Do not use a period between the title and the parenthetical information.

Translated works

    Freud, S. (1970) An outline of psychoanalysis (J. Strachey, Trans.). New York: Norton. (Original work published 1940)

The original publication date is the last portion of the entry and should be in parentheses with the note "Original work published" followed by the date.


    Cynx, J., Williams, H., & Nottebohm, F. (1992). Hemispheric diffences in avian song discrimation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 1372-1375.

    Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integrataion in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237-288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

    Taylor, W.J., Zhu, G.X., Dekkers, J. & Marshall, S. (2003, June). Factors affecting home internet use in Central Queensland. Proceedings of the 2003 Information Science and Information Technology Education Conference, Pori, Finland, 573-588. Retrieved October 16, 2003 from http://ecommerce.lebow.drexel.edu/eli/2003Proceedings/PaperPage131.html


Dissertation obtained from Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI)

    Bower, D.L. (1993). Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristics of referring and nonreferring supervisors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (01), 534B. (UMI No. 9315947)

Dissertation obtained from the university:

    Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference and mistaken identity: When a witness misidentifies a familiar but innocent person from a lineup (Doctoral dissertaton, Cornell University, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 417.

Give the university and year of the dissertation as well as the volume and page numbers from the Dissertation Abstract International.

Other Media

Citing interviews

    Archer, N. (1993). [Interview with Helen Burns, author of Sense and Perception]. Journal of Sensory Studies, 21, 211-216.

    In this example, the interview lacks a title, so a description of the interview is given in brackets. If the interview has a title, include the title (without quotation marks) after the year, and then give a further description in brackets if necessary.

    Unpublished interviews do not need a reference page entry because they are what the Publication Manual of the APA calls "personal communications" and so "do not provide recoverable data." Here, the entry consists of the first initial and last name of the interviewee, the type of communication, and the date of the interview.

      (N. Archer, personal interview, October 11, 1993)

Citing films or videotapes

    [Motion picture] replaces Film and Videotape as a bracketed descriptor. Weir, P.B. (Producer), & Harrison, B.F. (Director). (1992). Levels of consciousness [Motion picture]. Boston, MA: Filmways.

    Here, the main people responsible for the videotape are given, with their roles identified in parentheses after their names. After the title, the medium is identified (here, a motion picture). The distributor's name and location comprises the last part of the entry.

Citing recordings

    Writer, A. (Date of copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from writer].

      On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different than copyright) McFerrin, Bobby (Vocalist). (1990). Medicine music [Cassette Recording].  Hollywood, CA: EMI-USA.

Electronic Information

The type of medium can be, but is not limited to the following: aggregated databases, online journals, Web sites or Web pages, newsgoups, Web- or e-mail based discussion groups or Web or e-mail based newsletters. Pagination in electronic references is unavailable in many cases, thus left out of the citation. For some examples, visit http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Retrieved month date, year, from http://Web address.

The date should be the year of publication or the most recent update. If the date of the source cannot be determined, provide the exact date of your search.

The path information should be sufficienct for someone else to retrieve the material. For example, specify the method used to find the material: the protocol (Telnet, FTP, Internet, etc.), the directory, and the file name. Do not end the path statement with a period.

No Author. When there is no author for a Web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry:

    New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp

The text citation would then just cite a few words of the title to point the reader to the right area of your reference list: …are most at risk of contracting the disease ("New Child," 2001).

No author, no year, and no page numbers. A: Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation:

      A paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document.

      An overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section.

      Nothing. Just put quotation marks around the words you're using, which the reader can use as a search string.

Because there is no date and no author, your text citation would include the first couple of words from the title and "n.d." for no date (e.g., para. 5, "Style List," n.d.). The entry in the reference list might look something like this:

    GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2001, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/

    Style list for references. (n.d.). Retrieved January 1, 2001, from http://www.apa.org

Citing computer software

    Arend, Dominic N. (1993). Choices (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. Champaign, IL: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Research Laboratory. (CERL Report No.CH7-22510)

    If an individual(s) has proprietary rights to the software, their name(s) are listed at the head of the entry, last names first, followed by a period. Otherwise, treat such references as unauthored. Do not italize the title. Specify in brackets that the source is computer software, program or language. List the location and the organization's name that produced the program. Add any other necessary information for identifying the program (in this example, the report number) in parentheses at the entry's conclusion. To reference a manual, follow the same as above but add "manual" as the source in the bracketed information. Do not add a period at the end of a citation if it ends in a web address.

Full-Text Database (i.e., book, magazine, newspaper article or report)

The second date which follows is the date the user retrieved the material. No period follows an Internet Web address.

    Schneiderman, R. A. (1997). Librarians can make sense of the Net. San Antonio Business Journal, 11, 58+. Retrieved January 27, 1999, from EBSCO Masterfile database.

Article in an Internet-only journal

    Kawasaki, J. L., & Raven, M.R. (1995). Computer-administered surveys in extension. Journal of Extension, 33, 252-255. Retrieved June 2, 1999, from http://joe.org/joe/index.html

Article in an Internet-only newsletter

    Waufton, K.K. (1999, April). Dealing with anthrax. Telehealth News, 3(2). Retreived December 16, 2000, from http://www.telehearlth.net/subscribe/newslettr_5b.html#1

Internet technical or research reports

    University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A 21st century challenge. Retrieved September 9, 2000, from the Robert Wood Foundation Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/library/chrcare

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. (2001, March 14). Glacial habitat restoration areas. Retrieved September 18, 2001 from http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/land/wildlife/hunt/hra.htm

Document created by private organization, no page numbers, no date

    Greater Hattiesburg Civic Awareness Group, Task Force on Sheltered Programs. (n.d.). Fund-raising efforts. Retreived November 10, 2001, from http://www.hattiesburgcag.org

    Sometimes authors are not identified, and there is no date showing for the document. Date website was accessed should be used and efforts should be made to identify the sponsoring author/organization of the website. If none is found, do not list an author.

Document from university program or department

    McNeese, M.N. (2001). Using technology in educational settings. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from University of Southern Mississippi, Educational Leadership and Research Web site: http://www-dept.usm.edu/~eda/

E-Mail, newsgroups, online forums, discussion groups and electronic mailing lists

Personal communications, which are not archived, should not included in reference lists and cited within the text only: Smith, Fred ("personal communication," January 21, 1999)

If archived

    Hammond, Tl (2000, November 20). YAHC: Handle Parameters, DOI Genres, etc. Message posted to Ref-Links electronic mailing list, archived at http://www.doi.org/mail-archive/ref-link/msg00088.html

Unpublished work

Unpublished contribution to a symposium or paper at meeting

    Jones, B. (1990, June). Title of paper. In E. B. Cohen (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Informing Science Institute, Santa Rosa, CA, USA.

    Smith, B. (1991, June). Title of paper. Paper presented at the meeting of the Informing Science Institute, Santa Rosa, CA, USA.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation

    Cohen, E. (1979). Title of dissertation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, IN.

Unpublished manuscript not submitted for publication

    Boyd, E. (2001). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript, University of the West, San Francisco, CA. (omit university if not applicable)

Submitted for publication

    Cohen, E. (2003). Title of paper. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Do not give name of journal or publisher to which manuscript has been submitted.

If it has been accepted, put (in press) as date and give name of journal or publisher.

Parenthetical Citations

The APA system of citing sources indicates the author's last name and the date, in parentheses, within the text of your paper. Include only the year, even if the month is given in reference list.

The basic format for APA in-text citation is (Author's Last Name, Year of Publication)

Example: One recent study finds a genetic link to alcoholism (Jones, 1997).

If the author’s last name appears in the citation, then only the year is required. Example: Jones finds a genetic link to alcoholism (1997).

Within same paragraph, you do not need to repeat citation as long as this source cannot be confused with others cited in the article.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference.

Single Author

A typical citation of an entire work consists of the author's name and the year of publication.

Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990).

Use the last name only in both first and subsequent citations, except when there is more than one author with the same last name. In that case, use the last name and the first initial.

If the author is named in the text, only the year is cited.

According to Irene Taylor (1990), the personalities of Charlotte. . .

If both the name of the author and the date are used in the text, parenthetical reference is not necessary.

In a 1989 article, Gould explains Darwin's most successful. . .

Specific citations of pages or chapters follow the year.

Emily Bronte "expressed increasing hostility for the world of human relationships, whether sexual or social" (Taylor, 1988, p. 11).

Multiple Authors

When a work has only two authors, use both of their names each time their work is cited, joined by an ampersand (&) if in parentheses, or by the word "and" if in text:

Sexual-selection theory often has been used to explore patters of various insect mating (Alcock & Thornhill, 1983) . . . Alcock and Thornhill (1983) also demonstrate. . .

When the reference is to a work by three, four or five authors, cite all the authors the first time the reference appears. In a subsequent reference, use the first author's last name followed by et al. (meaning "and others"). Do not put et al. in italic.

Example of a subsequent reference:
Patterns of byzantine intrigue have long plagued the internal politics of community college administration in Texas (Douglas et al., 1997)

When the reference is to a work by six or more authors, use only the first author's name followed et al. in the first and all subsequent reference. (The names of the first six appear in the reference list.)

The only exception to these rules is when some confusion might result because of similar names or the same author being cited. In that case, cite as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al.

      Example: (Boyd, Cohen, et al., 2001; Boyd, Katz, et al., 2001)

When the reference is to a work by a corporate author, use the name of the organization as the author.

Retired officers retain access to all of the university's educational and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 1987, p. 54).

The name of group is spelled out the first time it appears in a text citation (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999). If the name is long and cumbersome and if the abbreviation is familiar or readily understandable, you may put the abbreviation in the first citation and abbreviate the name in the second and subsequent citations (NIMH, 1999).

The above appears in the reference list as: National Institute of Mental Health. (1999)…

No author

If no author is available, use the first few words of the reference list entry, usually the title and the year. Use the shortest form that will allow you to recognize the work properly). Use double quotes around the title of an article or chapter ("Study finds," 2002) and italicize the title of a book, brochure, or report (College Bound Seniors, 2001).

For instance, if you were working with a study called "The Effects of Aspirin on Heart Attack Victims" you would use this citation ("The Effects," 1995). If you were working with an entire book with no author called "Aspirin and Heart Attacks," you would use (Aspirin, 1991).

Only if the text is attributed to "Anonymous," use the format (Anonymous, 1999).

Same author, same date

If you are citing more than one work from the same year, use the suffixes "a," "b," "c" etc., so that your reader can differentiate between them (these suffixes will correspond to the order of entries in your references page):

For example: Several studies (Berndt, 1981a, 1981b) have shown that...

In one study… (Jones, Crick, & Waxson, 1999a). In another study… (Jones, Crick & Waxson, 1999b).

Authors with same surname

If two or more primary authors have same surname, include the first author’s initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs.


J. M. Goldberg and Neff (1961) and M. E. Goldberg and Jones (2001) found…

Is has been reported that…(B.A. Jones, 1998; R.F. Jones, 1999).

Parenthetical references to more than one work

Parenthetical citation of multiple works should be in same order as reference list and arranged as follows.

More Than One Work by the Same Author(s)

If you are citing more than one work by the same author(s), include enough information so that your reader can differentiate between them. For instance, if you have used two studies by the same authors (from different years), you simply need to include their dates of publication:
In a recent study (Jones, Crick, & Waxson, 1989)…; A later study (Jones, Crick, & Waxson, 2000)…

or, if you are citing both at once list them in order of the date of publication:
Several studies (Jones, Crick & Waxson, 1989, 2000)…

Differentiate works by the same author and with the same publication date by adding an identifying letter to each date:
(Bloom, 1987a, 1987b)

Multiple Authors Cited Together

List works by different authors in alphabetical order by last name (the same order as in the reference list), and use semicolons to separate the references.

(Jones, 1998; Heckels, 1996; Stolotsky, 1992)

Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source

To cite material that you have not read but that is discussed in another source, refer to both sources in the text, but include in the References list only the source that you actually used. For instance, suppose you read Feist (1998) and would like to paraphrase the following sentence within that book: Bandura (1989) defined self-efficacy as "people's beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives" (p. 1175).

In this case, your in-text citation would be "(Bandura, 1989, as cited in Feist, 1998)." Feist (1998) would be fully referenced within the list of References. Bandura (1989) would not be listed.

Another example:

Jones’s study (as cited in Cohen, 2002)…

Personal communication

Personal communications, such as e-mail messages to you, private interviews that you conducted with another person, personal letters, telephone calls, and other material that cannot be retrieved are cited in the text and receive a slightly more elaborate in-text citation. They are not listed in the references

To cite a personal communication, provide initials and last name of the communicator, the words personal communication, plus an exact date in the body of your paper


Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, April 17, 1989) confirmed that the ideas. . .

(H.J. Simpson, personal communication, September 29, 1999)

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

Direct Quotations

Always give page numbers for direct quotes. (Boyd & Cohen, 2001, p. 21) or (Cohen & Boyd, 2002, chap. 4)

Short. To indicate direct quotations of fewer than 40 words in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author, year, and specific page citation in the text, and include a complete reference in the reference list. Punctuation marks, such as periods, commas, and semicolons, should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quotation but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.


She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

Long. Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after closing punctuation mark.


Jones's 1993 study found the following:

      Students often had difficulty using APA style,especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributedto the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manualor to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Web site

When citing an entire Web site, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text. For example, Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive web site for children (http://www.kidspsych.org).



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